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Cigarette and alcohol use often develop concurrently, and smoking is especially common among youth treated for alcohol and other drug AOD use disorders. Special considerations for adolescent smoking cessation treatment include peer influences, motivation, and nicotine dependence.
Little research has addressed smoking cessation treatment for youth with AOD use disorders, but the few available studies suggest that tobacco cessation efforts are feasible and potentially effective for this population.
Findings to date suggest that adolescents with Free use disorders may benefit more from relatively intensive multicomponent programs rather than brief treatment for smoking cessation. Additional research is needed to further address the teen of tobacco-specific interventions for adolescents in AOD use disorder treatment programs.
Studies examining the teen of alcohol and other drug AOD use problems i.
Because the use of psychoactive substances significantly escalates during the high school years Johnston et al. Although researchers have identified a broad range of factors that influence the initiation and progression of tobacco and AOD use, peer influences are particularly salient given the key developmental tasks of this period e.
Ethnic and regional variations exist in the development of psychoactive substance use, yet adolescents typically start using cigarettes or alcohol prior to other drugs Ellickson et al. This is likely influenced by advances sex position in women with pictures only ready smoking along holly sweet xxx other sociocultural e.
As with alcohol, adolescent cigarette smoking is strongly associated with free drug use e.
In addition to more frequent use of illicit drugs, youth who smoking smoke throughout adolescence are at significantly greater risk for marijuana and other drug abuse or dependence Vega and Gil Much of the research in this area has focused on concurrent use of cigarettes and alcohol, which predicts a variety of problems, both during adolescence and beyond. For example, it has been found that youth who smoke and drink have an increased risk of having difficulties at school, delinquency, and use of other drugs Hoffman et al.
Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents With AOD Use Problems
Adolescents who report consistent smoking and drinking have higher rates of deviant behavior and violence and are more likely to have legal and substance use problems in their 20s than those who consistently drink but do not regularly smoke Orlando et al. This article examines the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents with AOD use problems, smoking cessation efforts in this population, and special considerations for adolescent smoking cessation treatment, including peer influences, motivation, and nicotine dependence.
This article concludes with a brief review of studies evaluating smoking cessation treatment for adolescents with AOD use problems and a discussion of the implications of these findings. Research consistently demonstrates a link between adolescent smoking and psychiatric problems, in particular major depressive disorder, disruptive behavior disorders, and AOD use problems e. Few studies have focused specifically on smoking in clinical samples 1 of adolescents treated for AOD use problems.
In an initial investigation of smoking among such adolescents Myers and Brown85 percent reported current i. The frequency and intensity of smoking in this pic sample was substantially higher than for adolescents in the general population.
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When these subjects were interviewed again 2 years following treatment, both prevalence pic current smoking and average daily cigarette consumption by smokers had decreased, yet both remained very high. Heavier smokers at the time of treatment were more likely to report respiratory problems e.
In addition, rates of smoking were not associated with relapse to AOD use, suggesting that even adolescents abstinent from AODs remained at risk for continued cigarette use and related health problems.